Job Analysis And Job Evaluation/Grading


It is important for any organisation to clearly identify the type of work that has to be done as well as the manner in which it has to be done.  “Job Analysis” and “Job Design” are the HR terms used to describe the processes in which this is typically done.

Job Analysis and Job Design influences other important HR processes, such as the recruitment and selection of suitably qualified Human Resources, fair remuneration strategies and the grading of positions within an organisation.
More information pertaining to these concepts are presented in this document.

Job Analysis and Job Design

Job Analysis is a process of determining what a job entails – i.e. the skills, knowledge, abilieits, tasks and responsibilities associated with a position.  Job Analysis can be done through different methods, including observation, interviews and questionnaires.  Job Analysis are often done for positions that currently exist within an organisation.

Job Design is a term that is closely related to Job Analysis and is often done for new positions in an organisation. Job Design entails the identification /structuring of the work activities required for a position/positions in the organisation in order to achieve organisational goals.

Job Evaluation/Grading

Job evaluation/grading is the classification of jobs according to a job grading system such as Paterson, Peromnes, Hay, Castellion or simply a semantic scale describing occupational levels (e.g. top management, senior management, mid management, junior management etc).
Job grading systems are used by many organisations to measure jobs according to their content and to establish comparative worth between jobs.
Some benefits of a well developed job grading system are listed below.

  • It shows seniority in an organisation and avoid misunderstanding in this regard (i.e. it clarifies the lines of reporting and levels of authority)
  • Helps to determine fair remuneration structures
  • Assists with Employment Equity and Skills Development by classifying employees correctly according to occupational levels as required by the Employment Equity Act and Skills Development Act;
  • Facilitates the career development/succession planning process in the organisation by mapping out the different levels in the organisation as per the job grading system) and clearly shows progression through these levels
  • Assists the organisation to get the most benefit from Employment Equity as an element of the BEE scorecard

Patterson Job Evaluation/Grading

Beyond Consulting specializes in the Patterson Job Grading system.  This internationally recognized system is not only easy to understand; but also quick to implement and update.  More information about the Patterson grading system:

  • The system was developed by TT Patterson in the early 1950’s;
  • Patterson’s aim was to find a method that is quick to implement and easy to update;
  • Patterson job grading is implemented in many countries across the world and is extensively used in South Africa; and
  • Jobs are compared to each other by looking at the number and complexity of decisions made by an employee.

The main factors taken into account when grading jobs according to the Patterson grading system are:

  • Decision making;
  • Coordination/supervision;
  • Continuum of skills/sapiential authority;
  • Complexity;
  • Variety;
  • Preciseness; and
  • Work pressure/physical effort.

In summary, Patterson job grading consists of:

  1. Broad banding – ranking the jobs from A to F;
  2. Sub-banding – identifying “upper” and “lower” portions of the bands; and
  3. Sub-grading – further dividing the “upper” and “lower” portions of the bands.

The Patterson grading process is graphically presented below.

Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Type of decision / judgement required Coordinate or supervise/ Continuum of skills/ sapiential authority Complexity, variety, physical effort, preciseness

F (“Top Management”)

F Upper

F4; F5

F Lower

F1; F2; F3

E (“Senior Management”)

E Upper

E4; E5

E Lower

E1; E2; E3

D (“Mid-management and professionally qualified”)

D Upper

D4; D5

D Lower

D1; D2; D3

C (“Skilled technical and junior management”)

C Upper

C4; C5

C Lower

C1; C2; C3

B (“Semi-skilled”)

B Upper

B4; B5

B Lower

B1; B2; B3

A (“Unskilled”)


A1; A2; A3


Job Descriptions/Profiles

In order to do job grading, an updated organogram and updated job descriptions/profiles are required for all relevant positions.  Job descriptions/profiles are written statements that clearly identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job.

Job descriptions typically include the following information:

  • Title of the position;
  • Department;
  • To whom the employee needs to report to;
  • Qualifications required;
  • Specific requirements for the position;
  • Key performance areas (KPA);
  • Key performance indicators (KPI);and
  • Skills and competencies needed to perform the required functions.

Beyond Consulting can also assist you with the development and updating of job descriptions.  The job descriptions can be tailored to the needs of the client as there are different approaches to writing job descriptions.

Please contact Melandi ( or 011 023 9451/2) for more information.